Introduction: Compassionate Communities are neighbourhood or village level organizations that addresses the holistic concept of health, physical, psychological, spiritual and social well-being. It is estimated that out of the 40 million individuals who require palliative care each year, 78 per cent reside in low- and middle-income countries. Objective: Compassionate Communities and Cities are based on a health promotion approach to palliative care, with the goal of supporting individuals in solidarity at the end of life. This systematic review aims to analyse Compassionate Communities and Cities initiatives in low- and middle-income countries to identify transferrable lessons for implementation in the primary care context. Methods: A comprehensive, search for studies indexed in Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Scopus databases and grey literature will be conducted using an electronic search strategy. The search strategy will include terms (and synonyms) describing Compassionate Communities and Cities, palliative care and low- and middle-income countries. Article screening will be conducted in two rounds. First, a title and abstract screening will be conducted followed by a full-text screening. Article selection will be conducted by two independent reviewers. Studies or articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria will be evaluated using a data extraction form. Data on objectives, study population, study setting, study characteristics and outcomes will be independently extracted by two reviewers. The reviewers will independently assess the methodological quality of included studies. A narrative synthesis approach will be employed to summarise and explain the extracted data. Results: The systemic review will be carried out and documented in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses. Conclusions: This systematic review will summarise the evidence and provide recommendations for the development and the implementation of Compassionate Communities and Cities approach in other low resource settings.
- Kellehear A. Compassionate communities: end-of-life care as everyone’s responsibility. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. 2013 Dec 1;106(12):1071-5. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hct200
- Kumar SK. Kerala, India: A Regional Community-Based Palliative Care Model. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2007;33(5):623–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2007.02.005
- Kellehear A. Health-promoting palliative care: Developing a social model for practice. Mortality. 1999;4(1):75–82. doi: 10.1080/713685967
- World Health Organization. Ottawa Charter for health promotion, 1986. World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 1986.
- Dumont K, Marcoux I, Warren É, Alem F, Alvar B, Ballu G, Bostock A, Cohen SR, Daneault S, Dubé V, Houle J. How compassionate communities are implemented and evaluated in practice: a scoping review. BMC Palliative Care. 2022 Jul 20;21(1):131. doi: 10.1186/S12904-022-01021-3
- Abel J, Kellehear A. Public health palliative care: Reframing death, dying, loss and caregiving. Palliative medicine. 2022 May;36(5):768-9. doi: 10.1177/02692163221096606
- Howard M, Pfaff K, Sattler D, et al. Achieving holistic, quality-of-life focused care: description of a Compassion Care Community initiative in Canada. Health Promot Int. 2022; 37(3). doi: 10.1093/heapro/daac067
- Kellehear A. Compassionate Cities: Public Health and End of Life Care. New York: Routledge; 2012. 55 p.
- Kellehear A. Compassionate cities: global significance and meaning for palliative care. Progress in Palliative care. 2020 Mar 3;28(2):115-9. doi: 10.1080/09699260.2019.1701835
- Kellehear A. The social nature of dying and the social model of health. Oxford Textbook of Public Health Palliative Care. Oxford University Press. 2022 Mar 31:22-9.
- Marino L. Time for a shift in power: A people-driven approach to integrated community care.
- International Journal of Integrated Care. 2021;21(S1):130. doi: https://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.ICIC20536 12. World Health Organization. Palliative care. 2020. https://www.who.int/news-room/factsheets/detail/palliative-care. [Accessed 30th June 2023]
- World Bank. World Bank Country and Lending Groups – World Bank Data Help Desk 2022.https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country -andlending-groups. [Accessed 30th June 2023]
- Breen LJ, Macdonald ME. Grief literacy: A call to action for compassionate communities. Death Stud. 2020;46(2):425–33. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1739780
- Brennan F. Palliative care as an international human right. Journal of pain and symptom management. 2007 May 1;33(5):494-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2007.02 .022
- Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Annals of internal medicine. 2009;151(4):264-9. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b2535
- Ouzzani M, Hammady H, Fedorowicz Z, Elmagarmid A. Rayyan—a web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Systematic reviews. 2016 Dec;5:1-0. doi: 10.1186/s13643-016-0384-4
- Hong QN, Pluye P, Fàbregues S, et al. Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) version 2018: User guide. 2018.
- Popay J, Roberts H, Sowden A, et al. Guidance on the conduct of narrative synthesis in systematic reviews. A product from the ESRC methods programme version. Vol. 1. Institute for Health Research, Lancaster University; 2006. p. b92.
- Levesque JF, Breton M, Senn N, Levesque P, Bergeron P, Roy DA. The interaction of public health and primary care: functional roles and organizational models that bridge individual and population perspectives. Public Health Reviews. 2013 Jun;35(1):1-27. doi: 10.1007/BF03391699.